Rustic and luxurious. Adventure, freedom and much, much clay. This is how consumers see the traditional British brand LAND ROVER. From the first model, the brand has been universally identified as the overriding use of four-wheel drive vehicles, inspiring luxury and a spirit of adventure in all parts of the world. Strong, intrepid, a legitimate LAND ROVER goes on to change history, mastering all kinds of terrain and continuing to conquer millions of demanding drivers. It all began in 1947 when engineering director Rover Maurice Wilks and his brother Spencer Wilks, then chief executive officer, were impressed by the good performance and versatility of the Jeep Willys in tackling bad dirt roads and a lot of mud. The legendary vehicle had been one of the main protagonists of World War II, participating in all the theaters of war activity of the conflict, and that they used in their cottage, located in Anglesey. At that time there was a growing market demand for these military vehicles. As a good market observer and visionary, Maurice was sure that a small 4 × 4-wheel-drive farm, capable of transporting people and still capable of performing some tasks on a farm, such as carrying loads or providing traction for implements (including plows), would undoubtedly be a success. The new model was devised on the Red Wharf Welsh beach when the engineers naively drew the shape of a car that would be perpetuated throughout history. It was easy to retrofit a Rover 1.6 engine, develop a better freewheel transfer case, adapt various power take-offs, and then start testing. All this was developed on the family estate located in Newborough, Anglesey. The  Land-Rover  (with hyphen, which lasted until 1978) should be simple in terms of design, materials, manufacturing processes and repairs. But structurally strong. The prototype, mounted on the chassis of a Jeep, was curious to have the steering wheel and the only seat in the center position.


Finally on April 30, 1948, they released the first  LAND ROVER SERIE I, at the Amsterdan Hall, at the cost of 450 pounds sterling and whose first sales were made at agricultural fairs. Initial production was only 3,048 units. The chassis number 861010 (a prototype) was delivered at Buckingham Palace this fall. He was transported to Balmoral, where the king used it in place of his horse. The final version of the LAND ROVER had three seats and a body made of Birmabright, an aluminum and magnesium based alloy that had a high corrosion resistance, which made the vehicles known for their durability even in the worst weather conditions. With extremely sturdy construction and features such as reduced front and rear projections, it has left the production line ready to tackle some of the world’s most demanding floors and obstacles. One of the characteristics that marked LAND ROVER in its beginning was the fact that all the produced models come in different shades of light green. The choice of this color was dictated by the excess paint left over from World War II, used in the camouflage of military vehicles.


Conceived with brilliant simplicity to provide extraordinary capabilities with unparalleled robustness and durability, the vehicle became widely used on farms for plowing, pulling agricultural implements, loading produce and even animals, or used for military purposes and even for safaris . It is estimated that about two-thirds of the vehicles produced at that time are still in circulation in the world, probably in the most inhospitable places and in the hands of those who like to clear. In 1949, the brand’s first vehicles were exported to the United States and Canada. By the mid-1950s, the LAND ROVER brand had become synonymous with durability and excellence in the off-road vehicle segment. After all, by creating a vehicle that brought the user full confidence, whatever the terrain, the brand encouraged a new generation of adventurers and trailblazers. After the 1.6-liter Rover engine was replaced by a 2.0-liter (1951), to widen the cargo area, the wheelbase was extended to 86 inches in 1953. The following year was featured the ‘Station Wagon’ versions with capacity for 7 and 10 passengers. Three years later were released the versions with diesel engine, known as 107 (distance in inches between the axles).


In 1958 the LAND ROVER SERIE II was presented  , according to the model of the brand, with change of the body, that was wider, of the hydraulic clutch and engine 6 cylinders as optional item, that gained a design a little more refined, reminding one more car of ride than an agricultural implement. As early as 1959 LAND ROVER reached the mark of 250,000 vehicles produced. Shortly thereafter, in 1961, the LAND ROVER SERIES IIA appeared , which had more power and capacity for 12 seats. The British utility gained more modern features in 1969, when it went through a restyling in which the headlights left the grid and went to the mudguards, a requirement to meet the new lighting regulations. In the following years, the automaker introduced revolutionary models that tried to reach a younger audience, such as the  RANGE ROVER , the luxury vehicle of the brand that incorporated all the capabilities of a LAND ROVER with the high level of comfort of vehicles of conventional passengers (for the first time in history), equipped with V8 engine produced by the American Buick, disc brake and permanent four-wheel drive, helicoidal springs and semi-monoblock body, launched exactly on June 17, 1970; and the SERIE III model   with 88- and 109-inch wheelbase, fully synchronized transmission and more powerful brakes, in 1971. Shortly thereafter, in 1976, LAND ROVER reached the mark of 1 million vehicles manufactured.


The success of the brand’s models in the off-road segment culminated in 1983 with the traditional Camel Trophy rally   exclusively with LAND ROVER vehicles. By 1985 the brand’s vehicles were already sold in 120 countries around the world. Almost a decade later, in 1994, BMW bought the Rover Group from Britisth Aerospace and introduced the second version of the classic Range Rover model. In 2003, the German company sold the LAND ROVER division to the US company Ford Motor Company for 1.8 billion pounds sterling. The following year was the first edition of the  Land Rover G4 Challenge , a new automotive category aimed at rejuvenating the brand and replacing the traditional Camel Trophy rally. Exactly on May 8, 2007 LAND ROVER reached a historic mark: the number 4 million vehicle, an LR3 model, left the production lines and was donated to the Born Free Foundation, a British conservation and rescue institution of animals. On March 26, 2008, LAND ROVER was bought for $ 2.3 billion, along with the traditional Jaguar, by the Indian group Tata Motors, commanded by the daring businessman Ratan Tata.


In the following years the traditional British brand presented true sales successes, such as the  RANGE ROVER EVOQUE in 2011 and most recently the  DISCOVERY SPORT , whose global presentation took place in 2013 through a test drive in Iceland, entitled to covered road by ice, snowstorm, lateral winds of up to 80 km / h and a river formed by thaw. In addition, the brand announced that its historic DEFENDER model would no longer be manufactured. Nowadays, the brand’s innovation culture is responsible for the development of new models, greater refinement, more innovative technologies, greater efficiency and lower emissions. And it remains active with initiatives such as e_Terrain technology(developed in 2006 that increases the environmental performance of vehicles by reducing CO2 emissions), Sustainable Production and CO2 Compensation. With a robust and reliable mobility platform, numerous organizations around the world have adopted LAND ROVER vehicles to transport people and equipment in the most extreme situations in absolute safety. In more than 65 years, the history of the brand, combines courage and adventure with learning about engineering excellence, always with ears attentive to its loyal followers for whom, LAND ROVER is a legend.




The Range Rover Sport debuts a semi-hybrid mechanic. The British SUV’s line is enriched by the unveiling of the new 3.0-liter, 400-hp in-line six-cylinder petrol engine, a propeller that is electrified thanks to a Mild Hybrid system. High performance combined with great refinement and rapid response, while improving fuel consumption and emission levels. To celebrate the introduction of this engine, Land Rover will offer the special edition HST. The new Range Rover Sport HST is already on sale in Europe. This series features several specific elements both inside and outside. These include carbon fiber frames with unique anagrams on the hood, the front grille, the side ventilation screens and the trunk lid.


The new Range Rover Sport HST will be available in five exterior colors: Santorini Black, Fuji White, Indus Silver, Firenze Red and Carpathian Gray. You can also choose between two designs of alloy wheels. The wheels let you glimpse the brake calipers in red color as standard or as anodized gray optional. In relation to the interior, Dynamic front seats appear in leather and with a new color. In addition, the steering wheel flaps and the anchor HST stand out by the finish in the color Satin Chrome. Amongst the standard equipment will be a large number of driving assistance systems, such as adaptive cruise control and high-speed emergency braking system, among others. The new 3.0-liter petrol V6 engine develops a total power of 400 hp and 550 Nm of maximum torque. It is coupled to an automatic transmission and to a total drive system. Thanks to this configuration the Range Rover Sport HST is able to accelerate from 0 to 100 km / h in 6.2 seconds and reach a top speed of 225 km / h. Next to the engine an electric propeller of support MHEV appears that manages to improve the efficiency. It announces an average consumption of 10.75 km / l and CO2 emissions of 213 g / km. The semi-hybrid system allows you to recover energy during braking and deceleration, and store it in a 48-volt battery for later use, for example when you start your car and start moving.



One of the biggest and best experts in preparing the Land Rover Defender line is none other than The Chelsea Truck Company, a British company owned by Afzal Kahn, founder and owner of Project Kahn and Kahn Design companies. This company – or division – has an extensive catalog of parts and tuning elements for Land Rover’s classic Defender, as well as numerous personalization kits, all of them equipped with the particular and aggressive design language of this British preparer. His last work is especially striking, since unlike other similar parts presented earlier, this one tries to pay homage to the classic Land Rover Series II. Hence the strange front that shows the copy that appears in the official images released by the brand. Called Homage II Edition, this work has a completely new front, with the same particular structure that characterized the design of the aforementioned classic model, with headlights and grille located in the center and the lateral wheel arches protruding on both sides. So the craftsmen and experts at The Chelsea Truck Company had to create a front end and a grid specific to that version. In addition, the Land Rover Defender Homage II Edition has the usual aesthetics of its models, with notable chassis improvements that include wider axles (up to 200 mm) and overhead suspension, as well as a large wheel and tire assembly and clear off-road guidance. Even the wheelbase is now larger, with 203 mm more. Each body panel has been modified to fit the new dimensions and the new larger and more aggressive image. The final shot ends with the classic style headlights and the visible bars in Santana’s mode. These appear in black, so they contrast, and much, with the attractive yellow body of the British all-terrain.


Hubcaps for the Hottest Cars

Today, hubcaps are also now available in different materials, such as aluminum, plastic, and steel. The most popular types of hubcaps are those made of aluminum or steel due to their durability, although more and more people now prefer those made of high-grade plastic because of their flexibility. Over the years, the look of hubcaps changed from one form to another. There were wheel covers that were about 4″ in diameter and there were some that were so big they actually covered the whole tire. Car enthusiasts and experts have come up with the most elegant and extravagant designs for hottest cars this year, while others came up with very functional designs. Hubcaps have not only become a motor vehicle accessory but they have also become a fashion statement for some. Though the majority of car enthusiasts of today see wheel covers more as fashion accessories there was a time when hubcaps were used for functional and practical reasons. During the early days of the motor vehicle industry hubcaps functioned as protective gear to keep dirt and harmful substances from sticking to the inner parts of the tires. They protected the axles of the wheels as well as the hubs so that they’d still function properly.


Today, wheel covers or hubcaps are still used for that same function. These accessories still protect the tires from harmful particles and they help maintain the spindle nuts and bearings in tiptop shape. The difference though is that hubcaps of today have also become fashion accessories as well as protective covers. Wheel covers come in several shapes, sizes, and colors these days and every customer can find one that will fit their sense of style. Some hubcaps are designed to look like Frisbee discs with the flat surface and chrome exterior. These wheel covers do not only protect the bearings and the spindle nuts of the wheels, they also complement the whole image of the vehicle. Customized hubcaps are also now available for those who want their vehicles to look more unique. People can now trawl through different kinds of hubcaps that would match their sense of style or the model of their car. Some wheel covers have elegant design, which would fit those who are rich but conservative, while others have simple designs, which would fit well with people who prefer functionality over style. There are even hubcaps that were created to match the make and model of a vehicle, which will make it easier for first-time car owners to choose the right kind of wheel cover for them.


Today, motorists have more to choose from with regard to the design of hubcaps. However, among all the types available on the market, the two most popular hubcaps are the clip-on wheel cover and the bolt-on hubcap. The clip-on hubcap is fashioned with steel spring clips that can latch onto the rim of the tires. The bolt-on is fashioned with threaded fasteners that can latch onto the wheels much more firmly. Clip-on hubcaps tend to detach if the vehicle makes a hard turn. Customers can go online to search for the kind of hubcap that will fit their car and their style. Online stores provide customers with plenty of information as to which hubcap would fit a certain make and model of a car. This makes it easier for people to choose the right kind of wheel cover for them. is among the top online providers of brand-new hubcaps, as well as customized ones. With over 20 years in the industry, this online store continues to be recognized to supply a full line of high-quality wheel covers for a substantial range of car make and models.

A vehicle’s air conditioning system is made of different components such as the evaporator, expansion valves, compressor, and condenser. These parts work together in order to have a cool air inside a car. Good ventilation is important in order that fresh air can circulate properly inside the car. One of the important parts in the air conditioning system is the condenser. Some of the vehicle owners don’t know the function of the ac system. A condenser is just a part of the total car air conditioning system. It works with the other air conditioning parts, to wit; the compressor, expansion valve, evaporator, and receiver. A chemical substance called refrigerant and air are the things that AC system manipulates. The refrigerant gas is compressed and pressurized by a compressor to make it hot. The hot gas will now flow into condensing coils with the air blown from the outside by the fan. The heat is then dispersed and the refrigerant gas cools down into liquid. The part of the refrigerant that turned into liquid evaporates in the evaporator and the cold air is forced to the receiver and filters the cold air of contaminants before it goes out of the interior of the car. The hot refrigerant goes back to the compressor again.


AC condenser works as the one who drives away the heat in the system. It is connected with the other air conditioning parts, located behind the frame in front of the radiator. An auto AC condenser is just like a radiator which has coils or tubing and fins. The difference of radiator from the condenser is that the radiator works for engine’s cooling system while condenser is for the car’s interior ac system. Another difference is that the engine’s coolant remains liquid state at all times while air conditioning system’s refrigerant must be converted into gas to circulate throughout the car’s cabin. Auto ac parts have a tremendous job to do and often used, it is important to take care of them regularly. Appropriate maintenance and replacement is needed if the car component is malfunctioning. Andrew Hernandez is a Gardena based marketing assistant for an aftermarket automotive manufacturing firm, makers of quality AC condenser, automotive mirrors and automotive lights. He graduated at the University of Arizona with Academic Distinction.


Subaru BRZ tS 2018: it takes more power!


The irony here is that even if this very limited edition of the racing car is lined with STI badges (we counted 16 in total!), It remains unchanged mechanically. We are rather dealing with an aesthetic package and modifications to the suspension and chassis to improve handling, as if the BRZ needed love on that side … If you are one of the people who criticized the Subaru / Toyota sports coupe for lack of power, the declination tS may very well give you reason! That said, the declination tS is far from disappointing. On the contrary, it highlights the qualities (and defects) of a very successful sports car, which has consistently focused on handling and driving pleasure. Even if this special edition, produced in only 500 copies, considerably raises the price of small BRZ, consumers still get their money. As mentioned above, the engine remains unchanged since the 2017 update. Still of the Boxer type, the 2.0-liter four-cylinder engine develops 205 horsepower and 156 lb-ft of torque. For the STI, which stands for tuned by STI, only the six-speed manual transmission is available. Of course, the BRZ is a sports coupe with a power train. The tS package includes more aggressive ground effects, including blackened side skirts, a diffuser at the rear and a spoiler at the front. STI 18-inch wheels, blackened mirrors, red accents and tS / STI escutcheons here and there, and the huge adjustable carbon fiber spoiler worthy of fast cars and dangerous.


Among the technical additions are more aggressive tires – Michelin Pilot Sport 4 215 / 40R-18 – Brembo brakes incorporating discs 12.8 inches in diameter at the front and 12.4 inches at the rear, firmer Sachs brand shock absorbers, STI springs – also 15% firmer front and 3% rear – and flexible “V” bars to help strengthen suspension turrets and the front axle, allowing at the same time to improve the direction. The result is an extreme BRZ on all points, except side power, of course. It is for this reason that Subaru did not name it “BRZ STI”, because the whole rather thinks of what one would see on the side of a BMW M Package or a Mercedes-AMG C 43 instead a C 63, for example. There are components coming from the internal equipment manufacturer, without necessarily sitting in a completely redesigned car.


My colleague Marc Lachapelle had the chance to try the Subaru BRZ tS on the Vancouver Island Motorsport circuit last winter. He stated at the time that the tS demonstrated significantly better handling than the base version, showing less rolling effect, higher grip limits and much sharper reflexes. And that’s true. Unlike the standard BRZ that quickly derails the rear end of the body as soon as it is lucky because of its thin tires, the tS sticks much more to the roadway, requiring it to be pushed further before it can drift. ” The modifications allow the car to shine. The tS is stable at high speed, easily controllable, contributing to a feeling of confidence behind the wheel, encouraging the driver to push it to its limits. Thanks to its balanced weight distribution, due to the Boxer engine positioned very low in the engine compartment, as well as a lightweight design, the BRZ tS has one of the best chassis in the industry. It is the same caliber as a Porsche 718 or an Alfa Romeo 4C.


An important lack

However, this excellent configuration projects a significant light on the engine which, although it loves to revolutionize while emitting a very pleasant sound, lacks low torque at low speed. Already remarkable in the ordinary BRZ, the feats of the tS give us hunger for 40 or 50 extra horsepower, or at least, for an increased displacement, much like what Honda did with its S2000 when the car went from a 2.0 liter engine to 2.2 liters. If we are at low speed out of turn, the BRZ does not advance, it is necessary to downshift one, sometimes even two reports to extract what it has in the belly, and as soon as ‘she’s starting to pull out fangs, it’s already time to change gear. In a world flooded with turbo engines, and where the Toyota Camry produce 300 horses, the small BRZ is unfortunately too “cow”. But that does not prevent it from being desirable. In fact, the Subaru BRZ / Toyota 86 is one of the only modern cars to sport the virtues of sports cars from the 80s – 90s. It is simple, without artifice, with a physical handbrake, a regulator Conventional speed and a concise multimedia system, without unnecessary gadgets. The clutch pedal is firm, the brakes respond as soon as you touch the pedal and the travel of the shifter is short, precise and pleasant to handle.


And as in any good sports car without compromise, the interior of the BRZ is closed, the rear seat is almost useless, and the trunk is small. But in the end, it’s a really fun car to drive, which allows us to escape, forget our worries and remind us why we are in love with cars. It can be pushed to the bottom without fear of breaking it or being a public danger. Vehicles like the BRZ, there are few. And the tS is the icing on the cake. Yes, we would have preferred more “torque”, but if this grind is the most accomplished to which we will be entitled, so we are satisfied that a car like this still exists